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Corpus Systématique Végétale

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Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities

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  • Letter
  • Special Issue on Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Vegetation
  • shrubs
  • vegetation
  • tundra
  • Arctic
  • alpine
  • climate change
  • feedbacks
  • ecosystem structure
  • ecosystem function
  • disturbance
Nom du fichier dans la ressource
  • Isla H Myers-Smith 1,2
  • Bruce C Forbes 3
  • Martin Wilmking 4
  • Martin Hallinger 4
  • Trevor Lantz 5
  • Daan Blok 6
  • Ken D Tape 7
  • Marc Macias-Fauria 8
  • Ute Sass-Klaassen 6
  • Esther Lvesque 9
  • Stphane Boudreau 10
  • Pascale Ropars 10
  • Luise Hermanutz 11
  • Andrew Trant 11
  • Laura Siegwart Collier 11
  • Stef Weijers 12
  • Jelte Rozema 12
  • Shelly A Rayback 13
  • Niels Martin Schmidt 14
  • Gabriela Schaepman-Strub 15
  • Sonja Wipf 16
  • Christian Rixen 16
  • Ccile B Mnard 17
  • Susanna Venn 18
  • Scott Goetz 19
  • Laia Andreu-Hayles 20,21
  • Sarah Elmendorf 22
  • Virve Ravolainen 23
  • Jeffrey Welker 24
  • Paul Grogan 25
  • Howard E Epstein 26
  • David S Hik 1
  • 1) Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada
  • 2) Dpartement de biologie, Facult des Sciences, Universit de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 2R1, Canada
  • 3) Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, FI-96101, Finland
  • 4) Institute for Botany and Landscape Ecology, ErnstMoritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, 17487, Germany
  • 5) School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3R4, Canada
  • 6) Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 6700 AA, TheNetherlands
  • 7) Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
  • 8) Biodiversity Institute, Department of Zoology, University ofOxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
  • 9) Dpartement de Chimie-biologie, Universit duQubec Trois-Rivires, Trois-Rivires, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada
  • 10) Chaire de recherche nordique en cologie des perturbations, Centre dtudes nordiques and Dpartement de biologie, Universit Laval, Qubec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada
  • 11) Department of Biology, Memorial University, St Johns, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada
  • 12) Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands
  • 13) Department of Geography, University ofVermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
  • 14) Department of Bioscience, AarhusUniversity, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
  • 15) Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zrich, Zrich, CH-8057, Switzerland
  • 16) Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Davos, CH-7260, Switzerland
  • 17) School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, UK
  • 18) Research Centre for Applied Alpine Ecology, Department of Botany, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, 3086, Australia
  • 19) Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644, USA
  • 20) Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY10964, USA
  • 21) Institut Catal de Cincies del Clima (IC3), 08005 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 22) Department of Geography, University of BritishColumbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2, Canada
  • 23) Department of Biology, University of Troms, Troms, N-9037, Norway
  • 24) Environment and Natural Resources Institute and Biological Sciences Department, University of AlaskaAnchorage, Anchorage, AK 99501, USA
  • 25) Department of Biology, QueensUniversity, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada
  • 26) Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4123, USA

Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1)synthesize these findings, (2)present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3)explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4)address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in greenness, have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover. Studies indicate that warming temperatures, changes in snow cover, altered disturbance regimes as a result of permafrost thaw, tundra fires, and anthropogenic activities or changes in herbivory intensity are all contributing to observed changes in shrub abundance. Alarge-scale increase in shrub cover will change the structure of tundra ecosystems and alter energy fluxes, regional climate, soilatmosphere exchange of water, carbon and nutrients, and ecological interactions between species. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate processes, future research should investigate the species or trait-specific responses of shrubs to climate change including: (1)the temperature sensitivity of shrub growth, (2)factors controlling the recruitment of new individuals, and (3)the relative influence of the positive and negative feedbacks involved in shrub expansion.

Catégories INIST
  • 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
  • 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
  • 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
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Environmental Research Letters

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