Since 1974 several studies have been carried out in Norway to investigate the interactions between planktivorous fish, zooplankton, phytoplankton and water chemistry. Since 1978 a long-term national research program has been conducted by the Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (NTNF). In this program several whole lake manipulations of the fish stocks have been performed to test hypotheses about trophic interactions. It was predicted that manipulations of planktivorous fish populations, might also improve water quality in lakes undergoing eutrophication. Two examples are given to illustrate the achieved results. I: Whole lake fertilization experiment (1974–1978) carried out by Langeland and Reinertsen. The results revealed the importance of top-down effects in the lake ecosystem. When cladocerans dominated, the zooplankton community was able to maintain a more or less constant phytoplankton biomass and a rather low phytoplankton production even when nutrient levels were increased. During years with rotifer dominance, algal biomass and productivity increased, despite the low amounts of added nutrients. II: Experiment performed by Reinertsen, Jensen, Koksvik, Langeland and Olsen in the eutrophic Lake Haugatjern, total elimination of the fish populations by rotenone in late 1980, resulted in a 4-fold decrease in the algal biomass. The species composition changed from the dominance of large-sizedAnabaena flos-aquae andStaurastrum luetkemuelleri to smaller, fastgrowing species and gelatinous green algae. The results are discussed in relation to management of inland waters by combined techniques of biomanipulation and reduced external nutrient supply which increase food-chain efficiency.
- 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
- 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
- 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie